Also called Stoma, plural Stomata, or Stomas, any of the microscopic openings or pores in the epiderm
is of leaves and young stems. Stomates are generally more numerous on the underside of leaves. They p
rovide for the exchange of gases between the outside air and the branched system of interconnecting a
ir canals within the leaf.
A stomate opens and closes in response to the internal pressure of two sausage-shaped guard cells tha
t surround it. The inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall. When the guard cell is
filled with water and it becomes turgid, the outer wall balloons outward, drawing the inner wall with
it and causing the stomate to enlarge.
Guard cells work to control excessive water loss, closing on hot, dry, or windy days and opening when
conditions are more favourable for gas exchange. At dawn a sudden increase in stomatal opening, reac
hing maximum near noon, is followed by a decline because of water loss. Recovery and reopening are th
en followed by another decline as darkness approaches.
The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air is another regulator of stomatal opening in many plan
ts. When carbon dioxide levels fall below normal (about 0.03 percent), the guard cells become turgid
and the stomata enlarge.